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Daily physical activity predicts degree of insulin resistance: a cross-sectional observational study using the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
- Published on January, 2013
Background This study examined the independent association of objectively measured physical activity on insulin resistance while controlling for confounding variables including: cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, sex, age, and smoking status.
Methods Data were obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, a cross-sectional observational study conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control that uses a stratified, multistage probability design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. The analysis included 402 healthy U.S. adults with valid accelerometer, cardiorespiratory fitness, and fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. After controlling for relevant confounding variables we performed a multiple linear regression to predict homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) based on average daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
Results In our bivariate models, MVPA, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat percentage were all significantly correlated with log HOMA-IR. In the complete model including MVPA and relevant confounding variables, there were strong and significant associations between MVPA and log HOMA-IR (β= −0.1607, P=0.004). In contrast the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and log HOMA-IR was not significant.
Conclusion When using an objective measure of physical activity the amount of time engaged in daily physical activity was associated with lower insulin resistance, whereas higher cardiorespiratory fitness was not. These results suggest that the amount of time engaged in physical activity may be an important determinant for improving glucose metabolism.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2013